Plunging Folds paper models

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Resource Type:Classroom Activities; Curricula and Instruction
Grade Level:
9 10 11 12
Organization:Department of Geology, University College Dublin
Summary:Folds with inclined fold axis are called plunging folds. Determining the plunge and plunge direction can be a quite tricky task, if the exposure is 2-D. The models illustrate the difficulties that arise in the interpretation of the map pattern of plunging folds. You will find out that the map of a plunging syncline can look exactly the same as the map of a plunging anticline, if the sequence is a simple 'two-rock' multilayer. For completeness a model with horizontal fold axes is also available. Models for four types of folds is provided: syncline and anticline, plunging syncline and anticline, plunging syncline, and plunging anticline.
Earth Science Big Ideas:Big Idea 3; Big Idea 4
NGSS Discplinary Core Ideas:ESS2.B
NGSS Performance Expectations:HS-ESS2-1
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices:Developing and using models
NGSS Crosscutting Concepts:Stability and change
Subjects: geology; plate tectonics
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