1
Faults are one of the most impressive and beautiful structures arising from deformation of the earth's crust; we are not, of course, biased! Determining the slip-direction and the total displacement is often not an easy task. Slickensides are useful shear sense indicators, but generally cannot be...
Grade Level   6 7 8 9 10 11 12
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2
Folds with inclined fold axis are called plunging folds. Determining the plunge and plunge direction can be a quite tricky task, if the exposure is 2-D. The models illustrate the difficulties that arise in the interpretation of the map pattern of plunging folds. You will find out that the map of a...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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3
These two models illustrate typical structures developed in fold and thrust belts. The models can be made out of one single piece of paper, but we decided to split each model into two parts for easier model building. Contains two models: fault-propagation fold and fault-bend fold.
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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4
The purpose of the paper models is to help undergraduate students visualize a range of 3-D geometries associated with faults. They are intended as a complement to structural geology coursework on faults and to relate to mapwork. The models are easy to build and can be downloaded for free. Includes...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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5
Students often have problems visualising the difference between true and apparent dip. This paper prism might be useful. The model shows both dip and strike sections, with true dip and horizontal beds respectively, together with a face showing an apparent dip. Why not try to measure the dips...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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6
The three point problem is a fairly typical exercise for undergraduates. This model illustrates the 3-D geometry associated with the standard method for determining the strike and dip of planar features from three-point data. The model, which is constructed in two parts, highlights the method for a...
Grade Level   11 12
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7
"This model illustrates two apparent dips. Apart from constructing the model and measuring dips, it might be worth plotting the data on a stereonet, to answer the question """"what is the true dip""""!"
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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8
The V-rule is one of the most important ways of determining quickly the dip of planar features, i.e. the map pattern of a planar surface (e.g. fault or bedding) 'V's in the direction that it dips. This paper model shows a valley that is perpendicular to the strike of a faulted sequence and a fault....
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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9
Layers of sediments are generally deposited on top of each other. But sometimes sequences of different age are separated by an erosion surface. The difference i nage between the older and younger rocks, i.e. the time gap, is called a hiatus. The foto here shows an angular unconformity at Vallys...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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10
"These four models deal with the geometrical consequences of a fault displacing inclined beds: in all cases bed dips and related folding pre-date faulting. The models, and associated exercises, are intended to be performed in sequence. You should start with Part I, the other three parts give you the...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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11
This series of paper models of normal faults is designed to highlight the geometry of normal fault relays. Relay zones accomodate the transfer of displacement between segments by the formation of relay ramps. These models illustrate the conservation of displacement along the length of two normal...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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12
These models illustrate the geometrical consequences of two cross-cutting normal faults and the difficulty of interpreting the timing of cross-cutting normal faults from fault heave polygons on structure contour maps. The faults have different dips and displacements. The fault heave polygon map for...
Grade Level   9 10 11 12
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